FOD is any object that does not belong in or near airplanes and as a result, can injure airport or airline personnel and damage airplanes. Airports, airlines and airport tenants can reduce this cost by taking steps to prevent airport FOD. FOD includes a wide range of material, including loose hardware, pavement fragments, catering supplies, building materials, rocks, sand pieces of luggage, and even wildlife.
Typical Foreign Objects. Typical foreign objects include the following: aircraft and engine fasteners (nuts, bolts, washers, safety wire, etc.); mechanics’ tools; flight line metal (nails, personnel badges, pens, pencils, etc.); stones and sand; paving materials; pieces of wood; plastic and/or polyethylene materials; paper products; and ice formations in operational areas.
Debris Hazards. FOD hazards on airports are considered to be comparable to those associated with birds and winter operations. Costs to one major airline average $15,000 per aircraft, which represents an industry cost of over $60 million per year.
Damage usually occurs when debries are ingested into aircraft engines
FAA Advisory Circular 150/5380-5B (Debris Hazards at Civil Airports) is a good reference for developing a F.O.D – Foreign Object Damage Prevention Program