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Civil aircraft damage classifications

The following damage descriptions are based on the Manual on the International Civil Aviation Organization Bird Strike Information System:
1. Minor: The aircraft is deemed airworthy upon completing simple repairs or replacing minor parts and an extensive inspection is not necessary.
2. Substantial: Damage or structural failure adversely affects an aircraft’s structural integrity, performance, or flight characteristics. The damage normally requires major repairs or the replacement of the entire affected component. Bent fairings or cowlings; small dents; skin punctures; damage to wing tips, antenna, tires or brakes, or engine blade damage not requiring blade replacement are specifically excluded.
3. Destroyed: The damage sustained makes it inadvisable to restore the aircraft to an airworthy condition.

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